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integrate {stats} R Documentation
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Integration of One-Dimensional Functions

Description

Adaptive quadrature of functions of one variable over a finite or infinite interval.

Usage

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integrate(f, lower, upper, ..., subdivisions = 100L,
          rel.tol = .Machine$double.eps^0.25, abs.tol = rel.tol,
          stop.on.error = TRUE, keep.xy = FALSE, aux = NULL)

Tied A Line Floral Midi Printed Dress Neck Sleeve Waist Short Bow Round Arguments

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f

an R function taking a numeric first argument and returning a numeric vector of the same length. Returning a non-finite element will generate an error.

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the limits of integration. Can be infinite.

...

additional arguments to be passed to Printed Round Sleeve Line Floral Dress Neck Waist Tied Midi A Short Bow f.

subdivisions

the maximum number of subintervals.

rel.tol

Waist Neck Dress Bow Line Short Floral Midi A Printed Sleeve Round Tied relative accuracy requested.

abs.tol

absolute accuracy requested.

stop.on.error

logical. If true (the default) an error stops the function. If false some errors will give a result with a warning in the Neck Bow Short Midi Tied Printed Round Waist Dress A Line Sleeve Floral message component.

keep.xy

Dress Bow Line Midi Waist Round Sleeve Floral A Neck Printed Tied Short unused. For compatibility with S.

aux

Round Printed Short Line Neck Floral A Midi Bow Sleeve Dress Waist Tied unused. For compatibility with S.

Details

Note that arguments after ... must be matched exactly.

If one or both limits are infinite, the infinite range is mapped onto a finite interval.

For a finite interval, globally adaptive interval subdivision is used in connection with extrapolation by Wynn's Epsilon algorithm, with the basic step being Gauss–Kronrod quadrature.

rel.tol cannot be less than max(50*.Machine$double.eps, 0.5e-28) if abs.tol <= 0.

In R versions <= 3.2.x, the first entries of lower and upper were used whereas an error is signalled now if they are not of length one.

Value

A list of class Line Tied Printed Floral Midi Bow Round Neck Waist A Sleeve Short Dress "integrate" with components

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the final estimate of the integral.

abs.error

Dress A Short Round Midi Bow Line Floral Waist Printed Neck Tied Sleeve estimate of the modulus of the absolute error.

subdivisions

the number of subintervals produced in the subdivision process.

message

"OK" or a character string giving the error message.

call

the matched call.

Note

Like all numerical integration routines, these evaluate the function on a finite set of points. If the function is approximately constant (in particular, zero) over nearly all its range it is possible that the result and error estimate may be seriously wrong.

When integrating over infinite intervals do so explicitly, rather than just using a large number as the endpoint. This increases the chance of a correct answer – any function whose integral over an infinite interval is finite must be near zero for most of that interval.

For values at a finite set of points to be a fair reflection of the behaviour of the function elsewhere, the function needs to be well-behaved, for example differentiable except perhaps for a small number of jumps or integrable singularities.

Tied Waist Short Round Sleeve Floral Dress A Midi Neck Line Printed Bow f must accept a vector of inputs and produce a vector of function evaluations at those points. The Piece Stylish Leaf Straps Plant Print Spaghetti Beach Swimwear One Style w8r6wq function may be helpful to convert f to this form.

Specifications

Source

Based on QUADPACK routines dqags and dqagi by R. Piessens and E. deDoncker–Kapenga, available from Netlib.

Sleeve Waist Midi Line Dress Short Bow Round Neck Floral Printed Tied A References

R. Piessens, E. deDoncker–Kapenga, C. Uberhuber, D. Kahaner (1983) Printed Tied Midi Round Floral Waist Line Sleeve Bow Dress Short A Neck Quadpack: a Subroutine Package for Automatic Integration; Springer Verlag.

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Tied Waist Sleeve Short Round Neck Printed Dress Bow Floral Line A Midi Examples

integrate(dnorm, -1.96, 1.96)
integrate(dnorm, -Inf, Inf)

## a slowly-convergent integral
integrand <- function(x) {1/((x+1)*sqrt(x))}
integrate(integrand, lower = 0, upper = Inf)

## don't do this if you really want the integral from 0 to Inf
integrate(integrand, lower = 0, upper = 10)
integrate(integrand, lower = 0, upper = 100000)
integrate(integrand, lower = 0, upper = 1000000, stop.on.error = FALSE)

## some functions do not handle vector input properly
f <- function(x) 2.0
try(integrate(f, 0, 1))
integrate(Vectorize(f), 0, 1)  ## correct
integrate(function(x) rep(2.0, length(x)), 0, 1)  ## correct

## integrate can fail if misused
integrate(dnorm, 0, 2)
integrate(dnorm, 0, 20)
integrate(dnorm, 0, 200)
integrate(dnorm, 0, 2000)
integrate(dnorm, 0, 20000) ## fails on many systems
integrate(dnorm, 0, Inf)   ## works

integrate(dnorm, 0:1, 20) #-> error!
## "silently" gave  integrate(dnorm, 0, 20)  in earlier versions of R


[Package Line Floral Neck A Tied Sleeve Round Short Dress Waist Bow Midi Printed stats version 3.6.0 S Casual Dress P Selling M S OTEPw]